Studies, Research and Special Features

Volume 1

The first book unites all seven projects carried out by the Study and Research arm of Fundação Victor Civita (FVC) between 2007 and 2009.

The first study, commissioned by FVC in 2007, and conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics (Ibope)/Instituto Paulo Montenegro (IPM), titled Being a teacher: a study on the thoughts of teachers in the country’s main capitals, demonstrated high levels of dissatisfaction in the teaching profession and revealed a contradiction: most Brazilian teachers considered their initial training good, but claimed to be unprepared to teach in the classroom, bringing into question the efficacy of Pedagogy degree courses.

In 2008, the Family aspirations for better public schools poll was conducted, in partnership with Instituto Fernand Braudel, which outlined 840 São Paulo parents’ visions for the quality of their children’s education. According to the study, the families hoped to find efficient teachers and principals, computers that allowed their children dream of a better future – and less violence in schools.

Also in 2008, the study titled Elementary school teacher training: training institutions and their curricula, commissioned by FVC to Fundação Carlos Chagas, pointed out a huge deficiency in initial training courses for teachers. The analysis of the curricula found that Brazilian graduate programs don’t see  the “what” and “how” of teaching as a priority – only 28% of the subjects in the pedagogy courses referred to specific vocational training linked to classroom content.

FVC carried out four projects in 2009. Delegated to Fundação Carlos Chagas and conducted by Professor Bernardete A. Gatti, the study titled The attractiveness of teaching as a career in Brazil interviewed 1,501 high school seniors in order to build a panel of young people’s perceptions of teaching as a career, seeking evidence that could aid in shaping teacher training policies.

Conducted by Ibope/IPM, the study titled Public school management in primary education public schools in main Brazilian capitals: a profile of the protagonist heard from 400 principals from 13 capitals with the intention of building a profile of the administrator in Brazilian public schools. They are predominantly women, but the proportion of men grows according to educational level: at the high school level, one-third of administrators are male. Most attended public school, but migrated to private colleges as undergraduates. In General, their training was in Pedagogy.

Coordinated by Fernando Abrucio, political scientist and professor at Fundação Getulio Vargas (FGV), and with the support of professor Francisco Soares, from the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG),School management and quality of education: a study on ten schools in São Paulo used quantitative and qualitative methods, and included visits to 10 schools in four municipalities in São Paulo over three months. In search of the best management procedures, the project highlighted four key features that make schools improve their performance: administrator training, the principal’s ability to be part of all performance areas on a daily basis, attention to learning goals, and the ability to create a positive work environment at school.

To learn more about the actual use of technology and the internet in public elementary and secondary schools, the FVC commissioned Ibope and the Integrated Systems Laboratory at the University of São Paulo (LSI-USP) to carry out the study, titled The use of computers and the internet in public schools in Brazilian capitals, which involved 400 schools from 13 capitals.

Click here to download: Educational Studies and Research_Vol_1

Volume 2

The second volume provides the results of the Applied Human Development Center (Cedhap) study, coordinated by Professor Heloisa Lück and commissioned by FVC, Mapping selection practices and training for school principals, which aimed to understand the practices of school principal selection and training adopted by state and municipal education networks.

Coordinated by profs. Vera M. N. S. Placco and Laurinda R. de Almeida, from the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de São Paulo (PUC-SP), and by professor Vera Lucia Trevisan de Souza, from the Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), the study titled Curriculum coordinators and teacher training: intentions, tensions, and contradictions aimed to analyze the processes of school curriculum coordination in Brazil’s five regions.

The third study, commissioned by FVC to Fundação Carlos Chagas, titled Continuing teacher education: an analysis of methods and practices in Brazilian States and municipalities, outlined the makeup of continuing teacher training in different Brazilian states and municipalities, the methods by which it is implemented, and the monitoring and evaluation processes. The qualitative research was performed in 19 Municipal and State Departments of Education from all five regions of Brazil.

The last study pertaining to the 2010 agenda, The External Evaluation as an Indicator of State Educational Management, was requested from the Evaluation and Educational Measures Group (Game) at the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), and led by Professor Nigel Brooke. It describes the different ways in which the results of external evaluations are being used by state governments and the main Brazilian capitals in forming public policies to improve the quality of education, and comparing them to other countries.

Click here to download: Educational Studies and Research_Vol_2

Volume 3

This volume contains research published in 2011-2012 that covers four topics of utmost importance in Brazil’s current Educational landscape: good teaching practices in Mathematics; the last years of Elementary School (often called the forgotten cycle); the management of Early Childhood Education; and teacher training – distance learning degree courses in Teaching.

The teaching of Mathematics in primary education has been a recurrent problem in schools, in terms of both the specific language of this subject area and its approach, as well as teacher working conditions and the type of training and support that are offered to them. The main objective of researching Good Teaching Practices in Mathematics in classrooms is to highlight and understand activities that had a positive impact on student learning that were developed specifically in this discipline’s teaching. To that end, study coordinators Nilma Santos Fontanive, Ruben Klein and Suely da Silva Rodrigues conclude that this “makes an important contribution by adding a Brazilian slant to the findings of some of the world’s most renowned researchers”.

The subject matter presented in the research study titled Last Years of Elementary School: Approaching the Current Arrangement analyzes issues related to that stage only, i.e., the last four years of Elementary School, when the multi-specialist teacher is replaced by a group of 10 to 12 specialist teachers (abruptly breaking up a steady educational relationship), and in which the student does not get the same attention as the first years of this level of education (the period more keenly dedicated to literacy). Few studies shed light on that stage’s current arrangement in the school system and few political actions give attention to that stage of education. These considerations justify the research conducted by a team from Fundação Carlos Chagas.

Another stage of Education that has been raising issues for society and academics, and challenges to public policies, is that of Early Childhood Education.  Professor Maria Malta Campos leads the research study titled The Management of Early Childhood Education in Brazil, commissioned to the Carlos Chagas Foundation, which deepens knowledge about the subject in six Brazilian state capitals. What stands out in the study is how municipal differences affect the management of Early Childhood Education.

Finally, the fourth study deals with the matter of teacher training for working in Early Childhood Education and in the first years of Elementary School, analyzing Distance Learning: Supply, Characteristics and Trends of Teaching Degree Courses. Presenting a mapping of these courses with their supply and support conditions, it analyzes how they are conceived together with their characteristics and tendencies in the Brazilian landscape. The coordinators of this research – Leila Rentroia Iannone, Maria da Graça Moreira da Silva and Maria Elizabeth Bianconcini de Almeida – reveal the rapid growth of this type of course and its outcomes.

Click here to download: Educational Studies and Research_Vol_3

Volume 4

The fourth volume shows the contribution of a broad range of studies with a diverse focus: one in educational policies, the other in understanding the world of youths in relation to school, and a third considering an analysis of inequalities within Brazilian schools. By considering different aspects related to educational policies and their ramifications in social and scholastic reality, observations are again made, backed up by compelling facts, that allow a change in attitude and subsidize and stimulate the search for action alternatives.

The study by Sofia L. Vieira and Eloísa M. Vidal, titled Studies & Research: Contributions to Educational Policies, considers an analysis of the contributions brought by the research conducted by different groups of researchers from renowned national institutions supported by the Victor Civita Foundation (FVC), comparing them with other national and international studies in relation to their overlapping with educational policies, taking into account the 2007-2012 period.

In the research study titled What Low-Income Youths Think of School, led by Haroldo Torres and his team from the Brazilian Center for Analysis and Planning (Cebrap), specific methodologies were used in order to create a qualitative-quantitative overview, to contact youths in their homes, and to bring them together for face-to-face discussions. Haroldo also led another team of researchers in a complementary study to address High School Dropout Among Low-Income Youth.

The work of Romualdo Portela and his team, titled Analysis of Inequalities Within the Brazilian School System, points out how an understanding of this poorly-studied issue can provide direction to schools that can help overcome the escalation of educational inequalities observed in Brazil. Using available databases and conducting a survey of education professionals, the authors provide an understanding of the inequalities observed in educational outcomes among students with similar social and cultural characteristics.

Click here to download:  Educational Studies and Research_Vol_4

Volume 5

The fifth volume presents a subject regarded as a priority for discussions on Education in Brazil: the curriculum. The research subject topic was decided by a team of professionals invited by Fundação Victor Civita to identify gaps in knowledge and the most significant contributions that support those who make public policies. Throughout 2014 and early 2015, state curriculum documents provided a wealth of analytical material, and two research institutes took on different academic investigations. Both research studies commenced during the period in which a common national basis definition was introduced, as planned in one of the National Education Plan (PNE) strategies to be agreed between federal entities up until 2016.

The study Curricula for the Last Years of Elementary School: Formulation, Implementation Methods and Usage, conducted by the Center for Studies and Research in Education, Culture and Community Action (Cenpec), analyzed documents that, for the most part, were updated or revised between 2009 and 2015.

The study titled High School: Curricular policies of Brazilian States, conducted by Fundação Carlos Chagas (FCC) and coordinated by Gisela Lobo Tartuce, developed a comprehensive diagnostic framework for that stage’s curricular policies, using information studied in the documents of nine Brazilian states and the Federal District.

Click here to download: Studies and Research_Vol_5

Special Issues

Check out the Special Issues developed from studies published by Fundação Victor Civita between 2007 and 2015 here. The publications are listed below with their original Portuguese title and in chronological order:

Quem é e o que pensa o diretor escolar (Who is the Principal and How do They Think)

Two research studies conducted by the Study and Research Center of Fundação Victor Civita helped outline the role of the school principal and evaluate effective management practices. In addition, the research studies point to important considerations that can help improve the quality of our Education and correct problems with public policies. We invite you to get to know this profession and ten suggestions on how to improve their performance in public networks.

Computador na Escola – modo de usar (Computers in Schools – Use)

The survey of 400 schools reveals ways to improve students’ learning through the use of new technology. Including technology in the education plan is the only way to ensure that machines effectively become tools for learning curriculum content. A large window to the world: become familiar with actions that can make a difference, keys to success and major challenges of those who teach.

Por que tão poucos querem ser professor (Why so Few Want to be Teachers)

A survey of 1,500 high school students reveals that a teaching career does not appeal to almost anyone. Some of the reasons are low wages, social devaluation and poor working conditions. But there is a solution: experts set out proposals to fix the problem, regain the profession’s social value and attract the best.

Escolas Rurais (Rural Schools)

Researchers visited rural schools in 50 municipalities throughout all regions of Brazil and reveal the reality of Education outside urban centers. The research also points out the difficulty that teachers have in working with children of different ages and levels of learning within the same class, the uncertainty of resource materials, and the unfortunate reality of students who are encouraged to study and read, while child labor is still a sad reality for 30% of children. This needs to change and the field needs to be appreciated.

Como escolher um bom gestor escolar (How to Choose a Good School Manager)

This research shows how Brazilian principals are selected, revealing a lack of standards to guide this process. Learn the main aspects that can be taken into account when selecting and directing principals, as well as good ideas and some suggestions to make meetings with principals more productive and effective. Want to know more? Access the full content.

Os caminhos da Coordenação Pedagógica (Pedagogical Coordination Paths)

Two exclusive research studies outline the Pedagogical Coordinator profession and how they can contribute to improve teaching. Furthermore, researchers have identified successful proposals based on the concept that teachers learn in real-life situations and in collaboration with other professionals. Clarity increases effectiveness and reflection makes a difference.

Experiência de NY – Alunos em primeiro lugar (Experience from NY – Students First)

How New York revamped its public school system. Public authority initiatives that significantly boosted the quality of education and how coaches act to guide teaching practices by bringing improvements in teaching and strengthening the link between school and family. Learn more about the reform that reinvigorated this U.S. city’s teaching, bringing positive results and effective experiences that can serve as inspiration for Brazil’s public education system.

BID_Ensino Médio no Brasil (BID_High School in Brazil)

Teaching must be transformative. Research conducted in 35 High Schools shows the management practices and public policies that are achieving success in Acre, Ceará, Paraná and São Paulo, i.e., a commitment to learning, effective practices, teamwork and schools that prioritize skills and abilities. To ensure a good rating and full compliance with the Basic Educational Development Index (Ideb), a focus on learning and having confidence in the success of students is necessary.

Avaliação Externa (External Evaluation)

There is no doubt that evaluations were a breakthrough in Brazilian Education. However, the country still lacks an overall plan to optimize the use of this tool and, at the same time, dig deeper into the results and complement them with the integration of diverse resources.

If there is no ongoing in-service training on dealing with day-to-day difficulties for principals, pedagogical coordinators and teachers – as well as timely technical guidance on survey results – the mere disclosure of the figures does not cause teachers to reconsider their teaching method and impact the classroom.

Os desafios dos anos finais do Ensino Fundamental (Challenges of the Final Years of Elementary School)

Education is the way to transform Brazil. Get to know the difficulties faced by teachers and students and six ways to improve the rarely-explored elementary school phase. Furthermore, the research sheds light on the characteristics of the final years of elementary school, in which there are several changes in the school routine and in students’ lives.

Por dentro da Pedagogia à Distância (Inside Distance Learning for Teachers)

This study shows that Brazil’s fastest growing distance learning course has the same problems as classroom teaching. Experts suggest seven ways to improve this type of course. Get to know the actions most instrumental to institutionalizing DL Teaching courses and boosting the quality of training.

Os desafios da Educação Infantil (Challenges of Early Childhood Education)

This research highlights management problems in kindergartens and nursery schools and how municipal school systems and institutions can improve care. It outlines the role of teachers and principals in Early Childhood Education and provides expert recommendations. Early Childhood Education has developed and become more professional. Permanent policies are now needed to ensure quality care.

Caminhos para inovar (Paths to Innovation)

Learning in the 21ˢᵗ century, and how technology encourages new ways of thinking about Education. This research sets out guidelines for the evaluation of schemes that use technology to transform teaching and learning. Groundbreaking experiences show how teachers and managers can be agents of this transformation, plus 25 questions to help you reflect on your projects and become an agent of transformation in technological Education processes.

O que pensam os Jovens de Baixa Renda sobre a Escola (What Low Income Youths Think about School)

Research shows that low-income youths do not see any point in much of the content taught in class and complain that teachers do not use technology during class. There are signs that High School education needs to be revised. Get to know the experts’ reasoning behind the dissatisfactions and problems pointed out by youths in the FVC survey.

Boas práticas docentes no ensino da matemática (Good Teaching Practices in Teaching Mathematics)

What makes a good Math teacher? This research reveals the practices that contribute to increasing the effectiveness of Math teachers. The class should foster the participation and advancement of all, and a basic condition for teaching is that the teaching subject is thoroughly understood.

Pesquisas e Políticas (Research and Policies)

Learn how to teach the skills of the future. An analysis sought connections between 15 studies commissioned by Fundação Victor Civita and another ten national and international publications. Experts analyze the commonalities revealed by the study and show ways to improve teaching.

Como diminuir a desigualdade social (How to Decrease Social Inequality)

How to reduce inequality in schools and improve the performance of all students. The study highlights ways to reduce the disparity of results in schools. Get to know measures that guarantee learning opportunities for all. It is essential that this situation be changed for the country to truly achieve quality Education.

Mapa dos Currículos (Curriculum Map)

An inside look at state curricula. Two studies analyze the documents of Brazilian states for the last years of Elementary and High School. Learn the issues that need to be resolved and how to coordinate the content. Creating a good curriculum is not enough – it needs to come alive.